Today in History, English
Today in History, English

27541March 12Event538 – Vitiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Byzantine general, Belisarius.
27542March 12Event1550 – Several hundred Spanish and indigenous troops under the command of Pedro de Valdivia defeat an army of 60,000 Mapuche at the Battle of Penco during the Arauco War in present-day Chile.
27543March 12Event1622 – Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, founders of the Jesuits, are canonized as saints by the Catholic Church.
27544March 12Event1689 – The Williamite War in Ireland begins.
27545March 12Event1811 – Peninsular War: A day after a successful rearguard action, French Marshal Michel Ney once again successfully delayed the pursuing Anglo-Portuguese force at the Battle of Redinha.
27546March 12Event1864 – American Civil War: The Red River Campaign begins as a US Navy fleet of 13 Ironclads and 7 Gunboats and other support ships enter the Red River.
27547March 12Event1868 – Henry O'Farrell attempts to assassinate Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
27548March 12Event1868 – Basutoland, toaday called Lesotho is annexed by the United Kingdom.
27549March 12Event1881 – Andrew Watson makes his Scotland debut as the world's first black international football player and captain.
27550March 12Event1885 – Tonkin Campaign: France captures the citadel of Bắc Ninh.
27551March 12Event1894 – Coca-Cola is bottled and sold for the first time in Vicksburg, Mississippi, by local soda fountain operator Joseph Biedenharn.
27552March 12Event1910 – Greek cruiser Georgios Averof is launched at Livorno.
27553March 12Event1912 – The Girl Guides (later renamed the Girl Scouts of the USA) are founded in the United States.
27554March 12Event1913 – Canberra Day: The future capital of Australia is officially named Canberra. (Melbourne remains temporary capital until 1927 while the new capital is still under construction.)
27555March 12Event1918 – Moscow becomes the capital of Russia again after Saint Petersburg held this status for 215 years.
27556March 12Event1920 – The Kapp Putsch begins when the Marinebrigade Ehrhardt is ordered to march on Berlin.
27557March 12Event1921 – İstiklâl Marşı is adopted in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
27558March 12Event1922 – Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan form The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
27559March 12Event1928 – In California, the St. Francis Dam fails the resulting floods kill over 600 people.
27560March 12Event1930 – Mahatma Gandhi leads a 200-mile march, known as the Salt March, to the sea in defiance of British opposition, to protest the British monopoly on salt
27561March 12Event1933 – Great Depression: Franklin D. Roosevelt addresses the nation for the first time as President of the United States. This is also the first of his "fireside chats".
27562March 12Event1934 – Konstantin Päts and General Johan Laidoner stage a coup in Estonia, and ban all political parties.
27563March 12Event1938 – Anschluss: German troops occupy and absorb Austria.
27564March 12Event1940 – Winter War: Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, ceding almost all of Finnish Karelia. Finnish troops and the remaining population are immediately evacuated.
27565March 12Event1942 – Pacific War: The Battle of Java ends with an Allied surrender to the Japanese Empire.
27566March 12Event1947 – The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed to help stem the spread of Communism.
27567March 12Event1950 – The Llandow air disaster occurs near Sigingstone, Wales, in which 80 people die when their aircraft crashed, making it the world's deadliest air disaster at the time.
27568March 12Event1961 – First winter ascent of the North Face of the Eiger.
27569March 12Event1967 – Suharto takes over from Sukarno to become Acting President of Indonesia.
27570March 12Event1968 – Mauritius achieves independence from the United Kingdom.

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