Today in History, English
Today in History, English

27961March 12Holiday and observanceNational Day (Mauritius)
27962March 12Holiday and observanceWorld Day Against Cyber Censorship (requested by Reporters Without Borders and Amnesty International in 2009)
27963March 12Holiday and observanceYouth Day (Zambia)
27964March 13Event624 – Battle of Badr: a key battle between Muhammad's army – the new followers of Islam and the Quraysh of Mecca. The Muslims won this battle, known as the turning point of Islam, which took place in the Hejaz region of western Arabia.
27965March 13Event874 – The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople.
27966March 13Event1138 – Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.
27967March 13Event1591 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, Moroccan forces of the Saadi dynasty led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.
27968March 13Event1639 – Harvard College is named after clergyman John Harvard.
27969March 13Event1697 – Nojpetén, capital of the last independent Maya kingdom, fell to Spanish conquistadors, the final step in the Spanish conquest of Guatemala.
27970March 13Event1781 – William Herschel discovers Uranus.
27971March 13Event1809 – Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden is deposed in a coup d'état.
27972March 13Event1845 – Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto receives its première performance in Leipzig with Ferdinand David as soloist.
27973March 13Event1862 – American Civil War: The U.S. federal government forbids all Union army officers from returning fugitive slaves, thus effectively annulling the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and setting the stage for the Emancipation Proclamation.
27974March 13Event1865 – American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agree to the use of African American troops.
27975March 13Event1881 – Alexander II of Russia is killed near his palace when a bomb is thrown at him. (Gregorian date: it was March 1 in the Julian calendar then in use in Russia.)
27976March 13Event1884 – The Siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins, ending on January 26, 1885.
27977March 13Event1897 – San Diego State University is founded.
27978March 13Event1900 – Second Boer War: British forces occupy Bloemfontein, Orange Free State.
27979March 13Event1920 – The Kapp Putsch briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin.
27980March 13Event1921 – Mongolia is proclaimed an independent monarchy, ruled by Russian military officer Roman von Ungern-Sternberg as a dictator.
27981March 13Event1930 – The news of the discovery of Pluto is telegraphed to the Harvard College Observatory.
27982March 13Event1933 – Great Depression: Banks in the U.S. begin to re-open after President Franklin D. Roosevelt mandates a "bank holiday".
27983March 13Event1938 – World News Roundup is broadcast for the first time on CBS Radio in the United States.
27984March 13Event1940 – The Russo-Finnish Winter War ends.
27985March 13Event1943 – The Holocaust: German forces liquidate the Jewish ghetto in Kraków.
27986March 13Event1954 – First Indochina War: Viet Minh forces under Võ Nguyên Giáp unleashed a massive artillery barrage on the French to begin the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, the climactic battle in the First Indochina War.
27987March 13Event1957 – Cuban student revolutionaries storm the presidential palace in Havana in a failed attempt on the life of President Fulgencio Batista.
27988March 13Event1962 – Lyman Lemnitzer, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, delivers a proposal, called Operation Northwoods, regarding performing terrorist attacks upon Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. The proposal is scrapped and P
27989March 13Event1963 – Police in Phoenix, Arizona arrest Ernesto Miranda and charge him with kidnap and rape. His conviction is ultimately set aside by the United States Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona
27990March 13Event1964 – American Kitty Genovese is murdered, the media erroneously report that many of the victim's neighbours witnessed the crime yet failed to help, prompting research into the bystander effect.

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