Guinness World Records List
Guinness World Records List

14281Most heat tolerant animal (land based)Cataglyphis bicolor, Cataglyphis bombycina, Cataglyphis savignyi, Cataglyphis fortis, Cataglyphis mauritanicus53 degree(s) CelsiusNot ApplicableThe most heat-tolerant (thermophilic) land animals are five species of desert ant belonging to the genus Cataglyphis - namely, C. bicolor, C. bombycina, C. savignyi, C. fortis, and C. mauritanicus. All are native to the Sahara Desert in North Africa, and they are able to forage for food in the open under the scorching desert sun until their bodies attain an incredible critical upper temperature of 53°C, at which point they must seek shade at once or die within seconds. Nevertheless, this thermal upper limit is still far higher than that of other desert-dwelling animals. The two most extensively-studied desert ant species in relation to thermotolerance are C. bicolor and C. bombycina.These thermophilic ants survive in such extreme temperatures in three ways. First, the ants move fairly quickly which minimizes their exposure to the sun. Secondly, their long legs elevate them above the surface of the desert by approximately 4 mm (0.1 in) where the temperature is 6-7 degrees cooler. And finally, when they forage the ants have a habit of pausing on stalks of dry vegetation where the lower temperatures help them to cool down. The average temperature of the human body is 37ºC, at 44ºC the human body system ceases to function resulting in death. They can travel up to 15 m per minute and can grow to 3/4 inch long.
14282Oldest surviving judicial codeUnknownIraqThe oldest surviving judicial code was that of King Ur-Nammu during the third dynasty of Ur, Iraq, c. 2250BC. The oldest English statute in the Statute Book is a section of the Statute of Marlborough of 18 Nov 1267, re-entitled in 1948 `The Distress Act 1267' and most recently cited in the High Court in 1986. Some statutes enacted by Henry II (died 1189) and earlier kings are even more durable, as they have been assimilated into the Common Law.Longest in the UK The weightiest piece of legislation ever written is the Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988 of more than 1000 pages and weighing 2.5kg 5∞lb. Lord Houghton of Sowerby appealed to fellow peers in November 1987 `not to walk about with it' for fear of ruptures.Shortest The shortest statute is the Parliament (Qualification of Women) Act 1918, which runs to 27 operative words: `A woman shall not be disqualified by sex or marriage from being elected to or sitting or voting as a Member of the Commons House of Parliament.' Section 2 contains a further 14 words giving the short title.
14283Largest hoard of buried coinsBrussels hoard of 1908Belgium, Brussels01 January 1908The largest deliberately buried hoard of coins ever found was the Brussels hoard of 1908 containing c. 150,000 coins.
14284Fastest moving ball sportJai-Alai (Pelota)302 kilometre(s) per hourThe fastest projectile speed in any moving ball game is c. 302km/h 188mph in Jai-Alai (Pelota).The most lethal ball of any sport, the pelota is 3/4 the size of a baseball and harder than a golf ball. It is made from constructed or hand wound Brazilian rubber with two handsown goatskin covers. Pelotas cost around $150 (£103) each and must be re-covered after 15 minutes of play. The word Jai-Alai actually means 'merry festival' in Basque and professional Jai-Alai in America started in Miami in 1926. The game originated in the Basque area of Spain's Pyrenees Mountains over 300 years ago. At that time it was played against church walls. It came to Cuba from Spain in 1898. Helmets were not used until 1968 when a champion player called Orbea was hit on the head ending his career. Although it started in the Basque country there are more Jai-Alai courts in Florida than in any other place in the world.
14285Oldest letterLetter ONot Applicable01 January 1300The letter ‘O’ is unchanged in shape since its adoption in the Phoenician alphabet c. 1300BC.Information from Archives (e.e. 1996).Submitted for use in Scholastic's Modern Marvels.
14286Coldest hot desertGobi Desert-20 degree(s) CelsiusChina, Gobi Desert01 January 2005In the Gobi desert of central Asia, winter temperatures can drop below -20ºC (-4ºF).
14287Oldest bridgeBridge over river MelesTurkeyThe oldest datable bridge in the world still in use is the slab-stone single-arch bridge over the river Meles in Izmir (formerly Smyrna), Turkey, which dates from c. 850 BC. Remnants of Mycenaean bridges dated c. 1600 BC exist in the neighbourhood of Mycenae, Greece over the River Havos.
14288Coldest erupting lavaUnknown500 - 600 degree(s) CelsiusTanzania, volcano Oldoinyo Lengai17 September 2003The coldest erupting lava in the world is the natrocarbonatite lava of the volcano Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania that erupts at temperatures of 500-600°C (930-1,110 °F). Common basaltic lavas erupt at temperatures between 1,100 and 1,200°C (2,010-2,190 °F).Oldoinyo Lengai is the only active carbonatite volcano on Earth. The bizarre carbonatite lavas look rather like molten chocolate upon eruption. It is extremely runny and has the lowest viscosity of any lava. Upon cooling it turns white in colour.
14289First places of worshipUnknownQueryMany archaeologists are of the opinion that the decorated Upper Palaeolithic caves of Europe (c. 30,000-10,000BC) were used as places of worship or religious ritual. Please see Caves of Lascaux, France.
14290Largest hoard of coins foundBrescelloItaly, Brescello01 January 1814The largest hoard was one of about 80,000 aurei in Brescello near Modena, Italy in 1814, believed to have been deposited c. 37BC
14291Greatest temperature range on EarthVerkhoyansk105 degree(s) CelsiusRussia, SiberiaTemperature range - worldThe greatest recorded temperature ranges in the world are around the Siberian `cold pole' in the east of Russia. Temperatures in Verkhoyansk (67ø33'N, 133ø23'E) have ranged 105degC 188degF, from -68øC -90øF to 37øC 98øF.
14292Most sets of quadruplets born to the same motherMrs. VassilyevaRussiaFour sets were born to the wife of Feodor Vassilyev (Russia, 1707–c.1782) who lived in Shuya, Russia. She also holds the record for being the most prolific mother.
14293Longest scientific namesystematic name for the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)Not Applicable09 April 1981The systematic name for the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the human mitochondria contains 16,569 nucleotide residues and is thus c. 207,000 letters long. It was published in key form in Nature on 9 Apr 1981.
14294First windmillsUnknown1450 year(s)Denmark, Zeddam,GelderlandAlthough usually associated with the Netherlands, the earliest recorded windmills were used for grinding corn in Iran in the 7th century AD. The oldest Dutch mill is the tower-mill at Zeddam, Gelderland, built c.1450.
14295First British saintSt. AlbanfirstThere are more than 2000 'registered' saints, of whom around two thirds are either Italian or French. The first British saint was St. Alban, who was executed c. AD209.
14296First use of an encryption techniqueCaesar cipherFrance, ,,Gaul encompassed present-day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of northern Italy and parts of the Netherlands and Germany.01 January 0050The Caesar cipher was first used during the Gaul War c. 50 BC. According to the biographer Suetonius, Julius Caesar employed this cipher during his military campaigns, the first recorded use of any encryption technique.The cipher is fairly simple, and in this instance involved shifting each letter of the alphabet three places to the left to produce apparently meaningless groups of letters. The recipient of the cipher had merely to move each letter three places to the right to reveal the message from Caesar.
14297Fastest digital signal processorUnknownUnited States, Stafford12 March 2003The fastest digital signal processor (DSP) is the TMS320C6416, by Texas Instruments (USA). On 12 March 2003, a clock speed of 720 megahertz (MHz) was demonstrated at the Texas Instruments Laboratories, Stafford, Texas, USA.THIS RECORD IS STRICTLY EMBARGOED UNTIL FURTHER NOTICETexas Instruments pioneered DSP technology and has maintained market leadership since the early 1980s. In fact, in late 2000, Jack Kilby, former director of engineering and technology at TI, received a Nobel Prize for inventing the integrated circuit, the basic technology that led to all modern electronics including DSPs.DSPs are used for real-time processing of data where no time lag is acceptable. Applications include audio signal processing, video signal processing and telecommunications.
14298Most people simultaneously blowing bubblesWest Ham United FCUnited Kingdom, Upton ParkLondonOn May 16, 1999, a total of 23,680 people in the soccer stadium blew glycerine bubbles into the air for 1 minute. The mass bubble-blowing event took place prior to West Ham United F.C.'s home Premier League fixture against Middlesbrough F.C., at the Boleyn Ground, Upton Park, London.
14299First recorded use of tobacco
14300Worst avalanche disaster - population death toll %Unknown111 peopleAustria, Blons,near the Arlberg Pass11 January 1954Two avalanches which roared into the small Austrian village of Blons near the Arlberg Pass at 9.36am and 7.00pm on 11 Jan 1954 killed 111 of the 376 residents. A total of 29 of the 90 homes were destroyed and 300 out of c.600 miners in the Leduc mine were buried alive.
14301Oldest goat everMcGintyUnited Kingdom, Hayling Island01 November 2003The world's oldest goat ever is McGinty who lived until the grand age of 22 years 5 months. Until her death in November 2003, McGinty was owned by Doris C. Long (UK) of Hayling Island, Hampshire, UK.
14302Lowest temperature - inhabitedOymyakon-68 degree(s) CelsiusRussia, Oymyakon01 January 1933The coldest permanently inhabited place is the Siberian village of Oymyakon (pop. 4000), 63°16'N, 143°15'E (700 m 2,300ft), in Russia, where the temperature reached -68°C (-90°F) in 1933 (the coldest ever recorded outside Antarctica).
14303Shortest company nameUnknownNot ApplicableThe shortest names on the Index are C Ltd, E Ltd, H Ltd, I Ltd, K Ltd, L Ltd, P Ltd, Q Ltd, R Ltd, W Ltd, X Ltd, Y Ltd and Z Ltd.
14304Most expensive carpetLouis XV Savonnerie carpet4406000 UK pound(s)United States, New York01 November 2000A Louis XV Savonnerie carpet measuring 5.4 x 5.8 m (18 x 19 ft) which was probably made for Louis XV's Château de la Mouette c. 1740-50, fetched $4,406,000 (£2,993,512) at Christie's, New York, USA in November 2000.
14305Longest Sled Dog raceIditarod TrailUnited States01 January 2011The longest annually contested sled dog race in the world is the 1,688 km (1,049 mile) Iditarod Trail, which takes place across Alaska, USA. Racers experience extreme weather conditions with temperatures dropping as low as -100 °F (-73 °C).
14306Most compact electric bikeYikeBikeUnited Kingdom01 January 2010Weighing in at 10 kg (22 lb), and folding down to just 15 x 60 x 60 cm (6 x 23.5 x 23.5 in) ­smaller than most folding bicycles - the YikeBike is the most compact folding electric bicycle on the market. The "mini-farthing" design is based on the "penny farthing" bicycle of c.1870.
14307First gunUnknownChina01 January 1250Gunpowder may have been invented in China, India, Arabia or Europe in the 13th century. Although it cannot be accepted as proven, it is believed that the earliest guns were constructed both in China and in Northern Africa c. 1250. The invention of the gun certainly dates from before 1326 for which there is documentary evidence, and references thereafter become more frequent. The earliest known example of a gun was found in the ruins of the castle of Monte Varino in Italy. The castle was destroyed in 1341.
14308Oldest cultivated plant for drinkVitis viniferaIraq18 June 2003Amongst the oldest cultivated plants that are used primarily for drink are grapes (Vitis vinifera). The earliest documented evidence proving that grapes were cultivated to make wine dates to 6000 BC in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), however the earliest physical proof of wine being stored and drunk comes from pottery excavations made in 1968 in Iran and dating to c. 5000 BC. But it was the ancient Egyptians, in 3000 BC who first recorded the process of winemaking, known as viticulture.Another plant that has been cultivated for thousands of years, specifically for drinking is tea (Camellia sinensis), of which the leaves have been used to make a beverage for 2-3,000 years. History dates the earliest use of it to 2737 BC, when the Chinese Emperor and herbalist, Shen Nong chose to drink his boiled water, even though leaves from a nearby camellia tree had accidentally fallen into it.
14309Coldest liquid water dropletsUnknown-37.5 degree(s) CelsiusUnited States, Texas13 January 1999On 13 August 1999, Dr Daniel Rosenfeld (Israel) and Dr William Woodley (USA) reported their aircraft measurements of tiny water droplets in clouds over west Texas, that remained liquid for several minutes at temperatures down to -37.5C (-35.5F). Their results were published in the journal Nature in May 2000. Colder droplets have also been reported, but these 17-micron droplets are the coldest ever seen which remain stable for several minutes. The density of these droplets was measured at 1.8g per m3.
14310Largest single crystal on EarthUnknown17 October 2002The Earth's inner core is a sphere of mostly iron around 2,442 km (1,517 miles) across. At 5,000-6,000 C (9,000 - 11,000 F) it is solid rather than liquid, due to the immense pressures in the Earth's interior. Many geologists now believe that this gigantic ball of iron is actually a single crystal. This is due to differences in the bahaviour of seismic waves passing through it in different directions. This huge hot ball of iron is about three-quarters the size of the Moon, and has a mass of around one hundred million million million tonnes.

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