1January 1Event153 BC – Roman consuls begin their year in office.
2January 1Event45 BC – The Julian calendar takes effect as the civil calendar of the Roman Empire, establishing January 1 as the new date of the new year.
3January 1Event42 BC – The Roman Senate posthumously deifies Julius Caesar
4January 1Event69 – The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor.
5January 1Event193 – The Senate chooses Pertinax against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman emperor.
6January 1Event404 – An infuriated Roman mob tears Telemachus, a Christian monk, to pieces for trying to stop a gladiators' fight in the public arena held in Rome.
7January 1Event414 – Galla Placidia, half-sister of Emperor Honorius, is married to the Visigothic king Ataulf at Narbonne. The wedding is celebrated with Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Gothic booty.
8January 1Event417 – Emperor Honorius forces Galla Placidia into marriage to Constantius, his famous general (magister militum).
9January 1Event1001 – Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II.
10January 1Event1068 – Romanos IV Diogenes marries Eudokia Makrembolitissa and is crowned Byzantine Emperor.
11January 1Event1259 – Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris.
12January 1Event1438 – Albert II of Habsburg is crowned King of Hungary.
13January 1Event1502 – The present-day location of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is first explored by the Portuguese.
14January 1Event1515 – King Francis I of France succeeds to the French throne.
15January 1Event1527 – Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin.
16January 1Event1600 – Scotland begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25.
17January 1Event1651 – Charles II is crowned King of Scotland.
18January 1Event1700 – Russia begins using the Anno Domini era and no longer uses the Anno Mundi era of the Byzantine Empire.
19January 1Event1707 – John V is crowned King of Portugal.
20January 1Event1739 – Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier.
21January 1Event1772 – The first traveler's cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London, England.
22January 1Event1773 – The hymn that became known as "Amazing Grace", then titled "1 Chronicles 17:16–17" is first used to accompany a sermon led by John Newton in the town of Olney, England.
23January 1Event1776 – American Revolutionary War: Norfolk, Virginia is burned by combined Royal Navy and Continental Army action.
24January 1Event1781 – American Revolutionary War: One thousand five hundred soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781
25January 1Event1788 – First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, is published.
26January 1Event1800 – The Dutch East India Company is dissolved.
27January 1Event1801 – The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
28January 1Event1801 – The dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi.
29January 1Event1803 – Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam.
30January 1Event1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country in North America after the United States
31January 1Event1806 – The French Republican Calendar is abolished.
32January 1Event1808 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.
33January 1Event1810 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie officially becomes Governor of New South Wales
34January 1Event1812 – The Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners' strike in Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham
35January 1Event1822 – The Greek Constitution of 1822 is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus.
36January 1Event1833 – The United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
37January 1Event1845 – The Cobble Hill Tunnel in Brooklyn, New York City is completed.
38January 1Event1847 – The world's first "Mercy" Hospital is founded in Pittsburgh by the Sisters of Mercy, the name will go on to grace over 30 major hospitals throughout the world.
39January 1Event1860 – First Polish stamp is issued.
40January 1Event1861 – Porfirio Díaz conquers Mexico City, Mexico.
41January 1Event1863 – American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory.
42January 1Event1863 – The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska.
43January 1Event1870 – Adolf Loos, architect, co-founder of modern architecture, baptized in St. Thomas church, Brno, Moravia
44January 1Event1873 – Japan begins using the Gregorian calendar.
45January 1Event1877 – Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom is proclaimed Empress of India.
46January 1Event1880 – Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal.
47January 1Event1885 – Twenty-five nations adopt Sandford Fleming's proposal for standard time (and also, time zones)
48January 1Event1890 – Eritrea is consolidated into a colony by the Italian government.
49January 1Event1890 – The Rose Parade in Pasadena, California, is first held.
50January 1Event1892 – Ellis Island opens to begin processing immigrants into the United States.
51January 1Event1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal, is officially opened to traffic.
52January 1Event1898 – New York, New York annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five bor
53January 1Event1899 – Spanish rule ends in Cuba.
54January 1Event1901 – Nigeria becomes a British protectorate.
55January 1Event1901 – The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.
56January 1Event1902 – The first American college football bowl game, the Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California.
57January 1Event1906 – British India officially adopts Indian Standard Time.
58January 1Event1908 – For the first time, a ball is dropped in New York City's Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.
59January 1Event1909 – Drilling begins on the Lakeview Gusher.
60January 1Event1910 – Captain David Beatty is promoted to Rear admiral, and becomes the youngest admiral in the Royal Navy (except for Royal family members), since Horatio Nelson.
61January 1Event1911 – Northern Territory is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.
62January 1Event1912 – The Republic of China is established.
63January 1Event1913 – The British Board of Censors is established.
64January 1Event1916 – German troops abandon Yaoundé and their Kamerun colony to British forces and begin the long march to Spanish Guinea.
65January 1Event1920 – The Belorussian Communist Organisation is founded as a separate party.
66January 1Event1923 – Britain's Railways are grouped into the Big Four: LNER, GWR, SR, and LMS.
67January 1Event1927 – The Cristero War begins in Mexico.
68January 1Event1927 – Turkey adopts the Gregorian calendar: December 18, 1926 (Julian), is immediately followed by January 1, 1927 (Gregorian).
69January 1Event1928 – Boris Bazhanov defects through Iran. He is the only assistant of Joseph Stalin's secretariat to have defected from the Eastern Bloc.
70January 1Event1929 – The former municipalities of Point Grey, British Columbia and South Vancouver, British Columbia are amalgamated into Vancouver.
71January 1Event1932 – The United States Post Office Department issues a set of 12 stamps commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth.
72January 1Event1934 – Alcatraz Island becomes a United States federal prison.
73January 1Event1934 – Nazi Germany passes the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring".
74January 1Event1937 – Safety glass in vehicle windscreens becomes mandatory in the United Kingdom.
75January 1Event1939 – Sydney, Australia, swelters in 45 ˚C (113 ˚F) heat, a record for the city.
76January 1Event1942 – The Declaration by United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.
77January 1Event1945 – World War II: In retaliation for the Malmedy massacre, U.S. troops massacre 30 SS prisoners at Chenogne.
78January 1Event1945 – World War II: The German Luftwaffe launches Operation Bodenplatte, a massive, but failed attempt to knock out Allied air power in northern Europe in a single blow.
79January 1Event1947 – The American and British occupation zones in Germany, after World War II, merge to form the Bizone, which later (with the French zone) became part of West Germany.
80January 1Event1947 – The Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 comes into effect, converting British subjects into Canadian citizens. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first Canadian citizen.
81January 1Event1948 – The British railway network is nationalized to form British Railways.
82January 1Event1948 – The Constitution of Italy comes into force.
83January 1Event1949 – United Nations cease-fire takes effect in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.
84January 1Event1949 –Tokelau becomes part of New Zealand.
85January 1Event1950 – Standard practice uses this day as the origin of the age scale Before Present
86January 1Event1954 – NBC makes the first coast-to-coast NTSC color broadcast when it telecast the Tournament of Roses Parade, with public demonstrations given across the United States on prototype color receivers.
87January 1Event1956 – Sudan achieves independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom.
88January 1Event1956 – A new year event causes panic and stampedes at Yahiko Shrine, Yahiko, Niigata, Japan, killing at least 124 people.
89January 1Event1957 – George Town, Penang becomes a city by a royal charter granted by Elizabeth II.
90January 1Event1957 – An Irish Republican Army (IRA) unit attacks Brookeborough RUC barracks during Operation Harvest two IRA volunteers killed.
91January 1Event1958 – The European Economic Community is established.
92January 1Event1959 – Fulgencio Batista, dictator of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro's forces during the Cuban Revolution.
93January 1Event1960 – Cameroon achieves independence from France and the United Kingdom.
94January 1Event1962 – Western Samoa achieves independence from New Zealand its name is changed to the Independent State of Western Samoa.
95January 1Event1962 – United States Navy SEALs established.
96January 1Event1964 – The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is divided into the independent republics of Zambia and Malawi, and the British-controlled Rhodesia.
97January 1Event1965 – The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan is founded in Kabul, Afghanistan.
98January 1Event1966 – A twelve-day New York City transit strike begins.
99January 1Event1966 – After a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumes power as president of the Central African Republic.
100January 1Event1970 – Unix time begins at 00:00:00 UTC/GMT.