Today in History, English
Today in History, English

82081July 20Event1189 – Richard I of England officially invested as Duke of Normandy.
82082July 20Event1304 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle: King Edward I of England takes the stronghold using the War Wolf.
82083July 20Event1402 – Ottoman-Timurid Wars: Battle of Ankara: Timur, ruler of Timurid Empire, defeats forces of the Ottoman Empire sultan Bayezid I.
82084July 20Event1592 – During the first Japanese invasion of Korea, Japanese forces led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi captured Pyongyang, although they were ultimately unable to hold it.
82085July 20Event1738 – Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye reaches the western shore of Lake Michigan.
82086July 20Event1799 – Tekle Giyorgis I begins his first of six reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
82087July 20Event1807 – Nicéphore Niépce is awarded a patent by Napoleon for the Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, after it successfully powered a boat upstream on the river Saône in France.
82088July 20Event1810 – Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada declare independence from Spain.
82089July 20Event1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek: Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.
82090July 20Event1866 – Austro-Prussian War: Battle of Lissa: The Austrian Navy , led by Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, defeats the Italian Navy near the island of Vis in the Adriatic Sea.
82091July 20Event1871 – British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada.
82092July 20Event1885 – The Football Association legalizes professionalism in association football under pressure from the British Football Association.
82093July 20Event1903 – The Ford Motor Company ships its first car.
82094July 20Event1917 – World War I: The Corfu Declaration, which leads to the creation of the post-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, is signed by the Yugoslav Committee and Kingdom of Serbia.
82095July 20Event1920 – The Greek Army takes control of Silivri after Greece is awarded the city by the Paris Peace Conference by 1923 Greece effectively lost control to the Turks.
82096July 20Event1922 – The League of Nations awards mandates of Togoland to France and Tanganyika to the United Kingdom.
82097July 20Event1932 – In Washington, D.C., police fire tear gas on World War I veterans, part of the Bonus Expeditionary Force, who attempt to march to the White House.
82098July 20Event1934 – Labor unrest in the U.S.: Police in Minneapolis fire upon striking truck drivers, during the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934, killing two and wounding sixty-seven.
82099July 20Event1934 – West Coast waterfront strike: In Seattle, police fire tear gas on and club 2,000 striking longshoremen. The governor of Oregon calls out the National Guard to break a strike on the Portland docks.
82100July 20Event1935 – Switzerland: A Royal Dutch Airlines plane en route from Milan to Frankfurt crashes into a Swiss mountain, killing thirteen.
82101July 20Event1936 – The Montreux Convention is signed in Switzerland, authorizing Turkey to fortify the Dardanelles and Bosphorus but guaranteeing free passage to ships of all nations in peacetime.
82102July 20Event1938 – The United States Department of Justice files suit in New York City against the motion picture industry charging violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act in regards to the studio system. The case would eventually result in a break-up of the industry
82103July 20Event1940 – Denmark leaves the League of Nations.
82104July 20Event1940 – California opens its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway.
82105July 20Event1941 – Soviet leader Joseph Stalin consolidates the Commissariats of Home Affairs and National Security to form the NKVD and names Lavrentiy Beria its chief.
82106July 20Event1944 – World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.
82107July 20Event1949 – Israel and Syria sign a truce to end their nineteen-month war.
82108July 20Event1950 – Cold War: In Philadelphia, Harry Gold pleads guilty to spying for the Soviet Union by passing secrets from atomic scientist Klaus Fuchs.
82109July 20Event1951 – King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem.
82110July 20Event1954 – Germany: Otto John, head of West Germany's secret service, defects to East Germany.

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