Today in History, English
Today in History, English

125461November 3Event1812 – Napoleon's armies are defeated at the Battle of Vyazma.
125462November 3Event1817 – The Bank of Montreal, Canada's oldest chartered bank, opens in Montreal.
125463November 3Event1838 – The Times of India, the world's largest circulated English language daily broadsheet newspaper is founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
125464November 3Event1848 – A greatly revised Dutch constitution, drafted by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, severely limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy, and strengthening the powers of parliament and ministers, is proclaimed.
125465November 3Event1867 – Giuseppe Garibaldi and his followers are defeated in the Battle of Mentana and fail to end the Pope's Temporal power in Rome (it would be achieved three years later).
125466November 3Event1868 – John Willis Menard was the first African American elected to the United States Congress. Because of an electoral challenge, he was never seated.
125467November 3Event1883 – American Old West: Self-described "Black Bart the poet" gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves a clue that eventually leads to his capture.
125468November 3Event1898 – France withdraws its troops from Fashoda (now in Sudan), ending the Fashoda Incident.
125469November 3Event1903 – With the encouragement of the United States, Panama separates from Colombia.
125470November 3Event1911 – Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.
125471November 3Event1918 – Austria-Hungary enters into the Armistice of Villa Giusti with the Allies, and the Habsburg-ruled empire dissolves.
125472November 3Event1918 – Poland declares its independence from Russia.
125473November 3Event1918 – The German Revolution of 1918–19 begins when 40,000 sailors take over the port in Kiel.
125474November 3Event1930 – Getúlio Dornelles Vargas becomes Head of the Provisional Government in Brazil after a bloodless coup on October 24.
125475November 3Event1932 – Panagis Tsaldaris becomes the 142nd Prime Minister of Greece.
125476November 3Event1935 – George II of Greece regains his throne through a popular, though possibly fixed, plebiscite.
125477November 3Event1942 – World War II: The Koli Point action begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on November 12.
125478November 3Event1943 – World War II: Five hundred aircraft of the U.S. 8th Air Force devastate Wilhelmshaven harbor in Germany.
125479November 3Event1944 – World War II: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.
125480November 3Event1954 – The first Godzilla film is released and marks the first appearance of the character of the same name.
125481November 3Event1956 – The Khan Yunis killings are perpetrated by the Israel Defense Forces in Egyptian-controlled Gaza, resulting in the deaths of 275 male Arabs.
125482November 3Event1957 – Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit, a dog named Laika.
125483November 3Event1960 – The land that would become the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was established by an Act of Congress after a year-long legal battle that pitted local residents against Port Authority of New York and New Jersey officials wishing to turn the Gre
125484November 3Event1964 – Washington D.C. residents are able to vote in a presidential election for the first time.
125485November 3Event1967 – Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To begins.
125486November 3Event1969 – Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the "silent majority" to join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.
125487November 3Event1973 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.
125488November 3Event1975 – Syed Nazrul Islam, A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman, Tajuddin Ahmad, and Muhammad Mansur Ali, Bangladeshi politicians and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman loyalists, are murdered in the Dhaka Central Jail.
125489November 3Event1978 – Dominica gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
125490November 3Event1979 – Greensboro massacre: Five members of the Communist Workers Party are shot dead and seven are wounded by a group of Klansmen and neo-Nazis during a "Death to the Klan" rally in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States.

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