Today in History, English
Today in History, English

131071November 18Event1105 – Maginulfo is elected the Antipope as Sylvester IV.
131072November 18Event1180 – Phillip II becomes king of France.
131073November 18Event1210 – Pope Innocent III excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.
131074November 18Event1282 – Pope Martin IV excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.
131075November 18Event1302 – Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam (One Faith).
131076November 18Event1307 – William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head.
131077November 18Event1421 – A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike in the Netherlands breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people. This event will be known as St. Elizabeth's flood.
131078November 18Event1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights the island now known as Puerto Rico.
131079November 18Event1494 – French King Charles VIII occupies Florence, Italy.
131080November 18Event1601 – Tiryaki Hasan Pasha, provincial governor of Ottoman Empire, utterly defeats Habsburg forces, commanded by Ferdinand the Archduke of Austria during the Siege of Nagykanizsa.
131081November 18Event1626 – St. Peter's Basilica is consecrated.
131082November 18Event1730 – The future Frederick II (known as Frederick the Great), King of Prussia, is granted a royal pardon and released from confinement.
131083November 18Event1803 – The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution, is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.
131084November 18Event1809 – In a naval action during the Napoleonic Wars, French frigates defeat British East Indiamen in the Bay of Bengal.
131085November 18Event1812 – Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Krasnoi ends in French defeat, but Marshal of France Michel Ney's leadership leads to him becoming known as "the bravest of the brave".
131086November 18Event1863 – King Christian IX of Denmark signs the November constitution that declares Schleswig to be part of Denmark. This is seen by the German Confederation as a violation of the London Protocol and leads to the German–Danish war of 1864.
131087November 18Event1865 – Mark Twain's short story "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" is published in the New York Saturday Press.
131088November 18Event1883 – American and Canadian railroads institute five standard continental time zones, ending the confusion of thousands of local times.
131089November 18Event1903 – The Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed by the United States and Panama, giving the United States exclusive rights over the Panama Canal Zone.
131090November 18Event1904 – General Esteban Huertas steps down after the government of Panama fears he wants to stage a coup.
131091November 18Event1905 – Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.
131092November 18Event1909 – Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya.
131093November 18Event1916 – World War I: First Battle of the Somme: In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916.
131094November 18Event1918 – Latvia declares its independence from Russia.
131095November 18Event1926 – George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, "I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only a fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize."
131096November 18Event1928 – Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the third appearances of cartoon characters Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse. This is considered by the Disney
131097November 18Event1929 – Grand Banks earthquake: Off the south coast of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean, a Richter magnitude 7.2 submarine earthquake, centered on the Grand Banks, breaks 12 submarine transatlantic telegraph cables and triggers a tsunami that destroys ma
131098November 18Event1930 – Soka Kyoiku Gakkai, a Buddhist association later renamed Soka Gakkai, is founded by Japanese educators Tsunesaburō Makiguchi and Jōsei Toda.
131099November 18Event1938 – Trade union members elect John L. Lewis as the first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
131100November 18Event1940 – World War II: German leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini's disastrous Italian invasion of Greece.

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